Data revealed two major conceptual categories: Adolescence is a developmental period where young people are maturing physically, emotionally and socially as they transition into adulthood Erikson, ; Hill, Unfortunately, much of the extant research on LGB adolescent developmental factors has had a primary focus on traumatic life experiences such as victimization, harassment, and rejection, and the subsequent negative impact of such events on mental and physical health outcomes c.
Although the documentation and examination of various challenges faced by LGB adolescents is critical in helping researchers and practitioners to improve the life circumstances of LGB youth through different types of intervention, it is important to also highlight the strength and resiliency demonstrated by many LGB adolescents. Such studies suggest that outlets are not being provided for these youth to explore their identities and allow for a healthy and positive development.
Data from multiple studies have demonstrated higher rates of verbal and physical victimization experienced by LGB adolescents as compared to their heterosexual counterparts, and the negative effects this victimization has on their physical and mental health c. Few studies have specifically focused on strengths and resiliencies among LGB youth. Interestingly, the study also highlighted that some of the participants who were open and proud of their sexual orientation simultaneously experienced feelings of ambivalence regarding their identity.
These youth expressed the difficulty in constructing positive sexual orientation identity in the context of highly structured cultural and societal forces that give privilege to heterosexuality.
These findings highlight the challenges LGB youth face in maintaining resiliency while having to actively counter hetero-normative pressures and oppression. The authors assert that even though these young men were living in a hetero-normative Puerto Rican culture with pervasive homophobia and cultural stigma, they developed resiliency strategies that helped them to overcome potential obstacles. The development of strong ties with members of their social support network in order to assist with integrating their sexual orientation identity with their Latino identity and the ability to adapt I See Gay People changes were noted as key strengths exhibited by the youth.
While continuing research is needed on the developmental challenges faced by LGB adolescents, especially those who are also members of other oppressed groups such as youth of color, a parallel line of scientific inquiry is also needed to explore the strengths and resiliencies demonstrated by LGB youth. Most of these studies "I See Gay People" been limited by utilizing retrospective data reports from adult LGB individuals or relying solely on quantitative measures of sexual orientation identity.
This approach provides a general structure for discussion regarding sexual orientation identity but requires participants to provide their own terminology and definitions based on their life experiences and perceptions, thus avoiding the limitations of researcher-imposed terminology and concepts. Participants for the present study were 63 male youth who self-identified as gay or bisexual and were between ages of 15 and 22 at the time of recruitment.
In order to take part in the study, participants met the following eligibility criteria: All participants were recruited from Chicago and Miami community-based agencies and venues that target non-heterosexual male youth. Recruitment efforts were conducted by an ethnically diverse group of undergraduate, graduate, and Ph.
Once eligibility for the larger study was established, youth who expressed an interest in study participation completed a self-administered questionnaire in a private setting. Informed consent was obtained before participants took the self-administered questionnaire.
Demographic and quantitative data from the questionnaire were used to create a purposive, stratified sampling frame for the qualitative portion of the larger study.
The specific sampling stratification factors utilized were selected in accordance with the multiple identity development focus of the larger study; thus other potentially meaningful factors such as socioeconomic status and educational attainment were not used to create the strata.
Approximately two to six weeks after completing the quantitative survey, selected participants were contacted by phone or email for participation in the interview. Sixty-three qualitative interviews were completed. The guide examined five topics: Data for this study primarily came from the section of the interview focused on sexual orientation identity, although other sections of the interview did
I See Gay People pertinent data.
For each identity area, participants were first asked to define their identity using their own words and conceptualizations. They were then guided through an in-depth exploration of factors that have influenced each specific identity I See Gay People. Within these areas, youth provided accounts of their experiences.
However, they were also encouraged to discuss additional information that was not covered in the interview guide but that was personally relevant in their identity development. The in-depth interviews were conducted by an ethnically diverse research staff of self-identified, non-heterosexual doctoral graduate students and Ph.
All interviewers were trained by the primary investigator on all aspects of data collection, including rapport building, administration of the semi-structured interview, and debriefing. The interviews took place in private offices at the community recruitment site or the sponsoring university, depending on participant preference.
At the end of interview, all participants were debriefed in order to follow up on any statements made during the interview that may indicate psychosocial distress, and to allow for any questions or comments by the youth.
All interviews were audio taped and later transcribed by a professional transcriptionist. Unique identifiers, rather than names or personally identifying information, were assigned to each interview in order to protect confidentiality. The first step in data analysis involved a reading of all interview transcripts in order to increase familiarity with the data.
Marginal notes and preliminary thematic codes were then created based on the initial patterns observed. When an initial set of codes developed, the list was used to re-examine the data to ensure validity of codes.
Old codes were amended and new ones were created, and transcripts were re-examined and recoded where necessary to ensure that all transcripts were coded accurately and completely. The data were entered into the computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software QSR NVivo to facilitate data storage, coding, and organization.
Data matrices were also created as visual representations of the findings, and to assist with the identification of critical factors and emerging themes.